1. Diet or sport: a tricky question
Atlético o Real Madrid, tortilla with onion or without onion, live for rent or property, Francisco de Quevedo or Luis de Góngora... Life is built on the basis of variable complexity choices. And in our five years of history, few with as much substance as this: if you want to lose weight, burn slipper or go hungry? After reviewing much of the scientific literature and departing with dietitians-nutritionists and sports physicians, the conclusions were clear and they took cover dimension in May 2017: "Physical activity has many benefits: it reduces the Heart disease, diabetes and cancer, as well as improving health and mood [...]. But there is limited evidence to suggest that it can end obesity [...]. There is only one effective way to lose weight--eating less, "summarizes an article signed by scientists at Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine. To erase all doubt of this victory of the food on the sport, the experts dismantle ingrained myths like, for example, that the mechanization of the work (and, therefore, less movement of the individual) has distributed kilos to right and sinister. "There is no data to sustain this theory. But it is also that mechanization happened in the years 60-70, so it does not explain that the obesity has been shot today, " they argue. A nuance: To take effect, food changes must be lasting.
A meta-analysis of JAMA magazine has already warned that there is no better diet than another: Only the one that is done to the end. And the depletion of the ration has to be accompanied by the choice of healthy foods, because it is also known that it is much more important to lose weight eating healthy than little. Finally, a warning: Do not leave the gym because, although the diet is thinner than the sport, the lack of physical activity is twice as lethal as obesity. According to a study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, exercising reduces the risk of premature death for any cause by 7.35%, while having a body mass INDEX (BMI) lower than the levels of obesity does in 3.66%.
2. Dismantling the myth of the ecological
Probably one of the battles that most enemies have earned us. "Switching to organic farming would mean that half of the world's population has to stop eating," begins the agronomist Marco Antonio Oltra, professor at the University of Alicante. In fact, their performance is lower. The label does not guarantee a decrease in the CO2 footprint. And no study gives you a higher nutritional quality.
3. The story that helped us understand science
"The pope will be infallible, but scientists do not. However, scientific errors end up being discovered because, unlike religion and pseudoscience, there is free discussion and, as soon as there are grounds for doubting an idea or a procedure, it is examined orreexamined, "declared the philosopher Mario Bunge to this magazine, in a report of October of 2014 that explained the changes of opinion of the science, and that months later it won the Prism prize to the best article of scientific divulgation. Thus, we learned that this is in constant revision, that there is the fallacy of incomplete evidence (to put in a drawer analysis that emphasizes that a product that interests promoting causes certain ills –ahem, alcohol –) or that changes in Paradigm are not made on the basis of a study, but all those that concern a topic (meta-analysis). We also learned that sometimes the one who sits wrong knowledge is the medium or the reader, confusing correlation and causality. An example: "Children of larger feet reason better." This does not mean that the size of the limb makes them smarter, but that the larger-footed kids are older.
4. Teeth, a superlative concern
The dentist Iván Malagón listed little known causes that make yellowing despite the brushing, as the age (it is inevitable: the enamel wears out and the inner layer is yellow) or the fluoride of the pasta (which protects from caries, so it is not eliminated). We gave with the correct time of the last brushing of the day: 20 minutes after dinner. And we brought down a myth: rubbing them with celery does not whiten.
5. Urgent appeal to rethink breakfast
Neither is the most important food of all nor skip favors the weight gain (there are people unable to start the day eating, for lack of custom or abundant previous dinner). However, it is part of these small pleasures, ceremonial and everyday, typical of better societies, as defended by the philosopher Ismael Grasa in his book The Secret Feat (Turner). Now that we know what matters, let's go to the content. Despite being an opportunity to promote good habits in the youngest, as indicated by the dietitian-nutritionist Aitor Sánchez, pastries has become the star food for most of them. "Eye: Even the landlady is a pump of fats and sugars," warns his colleague Daniel Ursúa. Banishing these products is to turn your back on overweight, obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.
Alternatives? This is Sanchez: Scrambled eggs, a toast with pepper or a bowl of yogurt with nuts and apples. Also dishes to which culturally we are not accustomed, like chickpeas with potatoes or beans with tomatoes. " And no calorie-sharing. "It's not very effective. There are those who meet the Council of 25% of the daily calories having breakfast an industrial bun, "intervenes Ramón de Cangas, member of the Spanish Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. As for the fruit, better whole than in juice, because to be squeezed loses vitamins, antioxidants and fiber. And the last revelation: sleeping badly will make your brain decant for unhealthy food, according to a study published in the Journal of neuroscience.
6. Crusade against the Pseudociencias: No one has been freed
"So reckless can be believing in night spirits as not distinguishing between a drug and a placebo." The phrase, by Alfonso Lopez Borgoñoz, president of the Society for the Advancement of Critical thinking ARP-SAPC, puts the focus on the need to fight alternative therapies. Already in 2016, we position: the evidence against homeopathy is overwhelming, and that works for you is due to a series of subjectivities that are eliminated by the scientific method. Since then, we have not stopped preaching the word of Carl Sagan, terror of the Charlatans. Anti-Acupuncture (the World Health Organization confers some efficacy to alleviate pain, but reviews of studies conducted by Cochrane Collaboration conclude that it serves no purpose), Bioneuroemoción (or the emotional origin of the disease) , ayurvedic Medicine (whose preparations are usually adulterated with heavy metals) or Reiki (healing through the hands). Between the physio and the osteopath, always choose the first, guarantee of university degree (to be osteopath in Spain enough with a course). And always doubt-always-of the word of Gwyneth Paltrow.
WHO shook our lives, in October 2015, with his warning that eating processed meat increases the risk of colorectal cancer. Now, the figures: two slices of bacon a day will make your chances of developing the disease go from 5% to 6%.
8. A lapse with (in) happiness, a debate that does not cease
Or become a millionaire. Or stay young forever. The most coveted treasure of our times is to achieve happiness. Despite the abstract of the concept, even Harvard University supports a way to achieve it, resilience, or the ability to emerge reinforced after adverse circumstances. Against play selfishness, complaint and envy, resolves psychologists. But, eye, the buenrollismo has empachado experts and acolytes, so we have gone from optimism at all costs to the need to experience negative emotions. "An ignored sadness can become a depression," says Ángel Luis Sánchez, a psychologist and director of the Development Institute. Something has not changed: socializing helps to get out of misery, according to the University of Chicago.
9. We also defended causes, such as cow's milk
In order to digest the milk sugar, an enzyme called lactase is needed. In Asia and Africa, the majority of its inhabitants do not produce it, so they are lactose intolerant. But in Europe, between 70% and 90% of the population does. If it belongs to this percentage, dietitians-nutritionists have it clear: milk is a biologically complete food and very suitable for human consumption. Fear of antibiotics administered to cows is no excuse. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) certifies that the percentage of milk with limits above those of the legislation is meager. On suspicion that it leads to cancer, there are no solid conclusions. And studies point to this that summarizes the School of Public Health of Harvard: "While calcium or dairy can reduce the risk of colon cancer, a high intake of this food group could possibly increase the risk of pró cancer at the same time Stata and ovary. " There is evidence here: it does not favor mucus or osteoporosis.
As for its fat content, which pushes many to the skimmed, does not even seem to be as harmful as suspected and, in the long term, opting for whole options may not affect a greater body weight or cardiovascular risk, according to the journal The Lancet, which recognizes limitations in the study. That yes: avoid raw always. Although Catalonia has regulated its sale, skipping pasteurization (either industrial or homemade) can lead to the consumption of bacteria that cause diarrhea, meningitis, liver failure or chronic ailments. What about the goat? It provides more energy and the Spanish Nutrition Foundation recommends it for people with digestive problems, such as ulcers or gastritis.
10. We rise to the rhythm of the feminist wave
The struggle for equality between men and women has led to allegations in the area of health and well-being, such as the cardiovascular mortality gap between sexes, according to José María Gámez, president of the Balearic Society of Cardiology, to the underdiagnosis of A pathology in women that until recently was considered men. Problems were uncovered, such as that 20% of females have vulvar discomfort during sexual intercourse (the causes are varied, but a good medical accompaniment could solve it). And they came to light uncomfortable studies for them, As singles in America, in 2017, where they made sure that half of the single women had received male intimate photos without having asked them.
11. The controversy of ' nesting '
Studies point out that staying at home all weekend lowers anxiety and illuminates the mind. Some voices in the networks accused the publication of these conclusions as a way of trivializinging poverty. Need or trend? Interesting debate.
12. DNA ceases to be sacred
And healthy habits can alter it. BuenaVida's story shares chronology with the epigenetic revolution. In September 2014 we dedicated a cover to this new scientific discipline. Teresa Roldán, professor of Genetics and Deputy Director of research at the University of Córdoba, presented it: "So far, we considered the cells as mere passive readers of an instruction manual, the DNA, which dictated how to behave. We've changed this rigid model to a more flexible one. The manual is read with studs or underlined (epigenetic marks) that affect the word or full paragraphs. Manel Esteller, director of the Epigenetics and Cancer Biology program at the Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (Idibell), was one of the pioneers in investigating this field, with the paradigmatic case of the Monozygotic twins, whose burden Epigenetics is no longer identical with the passing of the years.
"When a twin starts smoking, takes drugs or moves to a very contaminated area, even if it is only a year, his epigenetic profile can deviate significantly," he explains. The other side of the coin is the one described by Jörg Blech, biologist, biochemist and author of the book Destiny is not written in the genes (destination): "When we take a walk or go for a walk, we not only burn calories, we also modify the activity of the genes in the hypothalamus and deactivate the effect of the one who opens our appetite. " If epigenetic changes are inherited or not, it is something that should still be investigated. Plant studies suggest that. If so, enter in a new stage where the exercise you do today will determine the genetic expression of your grandchildren. And you will not be what you eat, but what your grandmother ate.
13. Against the fashion of removing gluten
Only 1% of the population is celiac, but 30% act as if it were. Harvard University warns of a link between gluten-free diets and an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. In addition, the price of the products is 150% higher, according to another study of the University of Hertfordshire, in the United Kingdom.
14. Pasta Dinner!
Restricting hydrates helps to lose weight, but only in the short term. And depriving themselves of them at night is unnecessary. More interesting is that the pasta is integral and the ration, medium. Another trick: accompany it vegetables and small amounts of protein-rich foods so that the insulin peak is lower.
15. What you know about labels after these five years
That a product qualifies itself as integral does not mean that it is (the law is being reformed and, in the meantime, if you want a whole grain bread, look for a good bakery). Light Mayonnaise is not calorie-free (only 30% less fat than its conventional variant, but still a lot). To find out the true amount of Turkey that carries a tray of this stiff, look at the percentage on the label: there are less than 50% and others that reach 92%. Not having added sugar doesn't mean it's healthy. And "100% natural" does not mean "without chemicals" (although it does not matter). The ingredients appear on the label from more to less present (You will be surprised with the position of the sugar in a pot of ketchup). The freshness is usually better, although there are processed sanísimos, like frozen vegetables.
16. Bacteria: One more in the family
We launched into the abyss of knowledge in June 2015, dedicating a cover to the 1,200 species of bacteria that populate the human intestine. To begin with, we clarify that these microorganisms have ceased to be uncomfortable guests. "Being free of them is worse, because with the food we eat, they produce substances that serve us as nutrients that we had not ingested," explains Francisco Guarner, head of the digestive system Department at Vall d'Hebron Hospital in Barcelona. Variety is a symptom of good health. And its alteration is related to type 2 diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases (which are already successfully combated, with stool transplants), some types of cancer and immunologic disorders.
The intestinal flora also holds a close link with obesity, and can even condition it, according to the School of Medicine at the University of Washington. And if you lacked reasons to care for your microbiota (good habits, better food and a pinch of luck – each person has his, like DNA), another finding: modulating their ecosystem can attenuate behavioral disturbances (anxiety, depression) Related to stress, according to Yolanda Sáenz, researcher at THE CSIC. There are still many unknowns in this field, as if changes in microorganisms are cause or consequence of the disease. "If we were able to understand we would come to personalized medicine, because the same bacterial composition has totally different effects in each person," slides Bioinformatics Francisco Codoñer, director of Lifesequencing. A milestone for the tenth anniversary?
17. From the quick ride to the soaked T-shirt
This magazine was born with the fashion of the power walking , which promised to increase cardiorespiratory capacity, lower blood pressure and the risk of coronary diseases, delay osteoporosis, increase muscle mass, Reduce weight... The panacea for sloths who conceived a running or spinning session as hell on Earth. But suddenly critical voices emerged with the warmest recommendations, which also advocates WHO (150 minutes per week of moderate aerobic activity). "It's not enough. It is necessary to include a work of strength: at least the third part of the training, "warned the Doctor of sports medicine Raquel Blasco. "High intensity aerobic work is recommended for everyone. What happens is that it has to be done progressively and adapted by a professional, "added the physical preparer David marching. And in this atmosphere of euphoria, we welcomed the high Intensity interval training (HIIT), which combines different exercises of a high demand and short duration to achieve a great metabolic impact (continue consuming calories hours later) . "The best exercise to lose Michelines", we titled in April 2015. And its version for Super-Men and Superwomen: The fearsome CrossFit, of which a Study in Journal of Strength and conditioning Research claims that it is not for everyone (you have to be very fit).
Future investigations questioned that with the high intensity was lost weight, but was achieved something even more valuable: replace fat by lean mass or muscle. With the Paseítos, it didn't happen. But we invaded laziness again, and we thought that Electrostimulation was a possible shortcut to lose weight without immutable (today they have closed most centers to be their benefits in question). What remains is the certainty that it is necessary to take care of the force: to make weights (or to work without instruments and only with movements) guarantees an old age without aches. And the benefits of running are so many, there is no longer a walker who is not encouraged to accelerate the stride. Sweat has been imposed... For now.
18. The message that more Machacón: "The ' detox ' does not exist"
To begin with, the "toxins" that allegedly eliminates this detoxification plan is an arbitrary and ambiguous term, experts say. The liver and kidney are already distancing themselves from the surplus substances. "And if you accumulate them, you need a transplant, not an infusion of parsley and chard," says Julián Palacios, a cardiologist at the Hospital Clínico in Madrid. Caution: There are people even intoxicated by Detox, according to a study published by the European Food Safety Authority, which includes "green shakes" among the 13 emerging health risks. The excessive consumption of spinach, chard and other vegetables rich in oxalic acid is taking the cases of kidney stones in Germany, very fans of the herbalist. Curious paradox.
19. The study that we spoiled the party (with beers)
The journal Annals of Internal Medicine published in 2015 that people with fat accumulated in the abdomen have twice the risk of mortality than those who are only overweight or obese.
20. The exaggerated? Palm oil Alarm
We had 150 years taking it... And all of a sudden, the bomb. A very nuanced headline that Caló: "The Nutella causes cancer by its content in palm oil". Alcampo said he would remove all the products with this fat. "It's not toxic or dangerous," the experts reassured. But it does increase the bad cholesterol and therefore the risk of heart attack and stroke. It is in biscuits, moulded bread, precooked...
21. Vegans came to stay
Five years ago, to be noted as one of them was considered an eccentricity or show of snobism. Today, the English weekly the Economist has christened 2019 as the year in which the wave veggie became definitively mainstream. And having a friend with no meat, for example, is no longer a nuisance (in fact, fast food chains LIKE Telepizza or VIPS already offer 24% of their card only in green). It is advisable, however, to clarify that veganism is not a diet, "but an attitude", he pointed out already in 2014 for this magazine Carol Pino, spokesman of the NGO DefensAnimal.org. Becoming a vegetarian is his first logical step, he confessed to the then president of the Spanish Vegan Association, David Román. Then, it is the turn of sponges and soaps without ingredients of animal origin; To choose cotton or synthetic garments on leather, wool or silk; To demand information from all production processes (they also reject the use of child labor and environmentally friendly modes).... In sum, animal welfare and ethics, summarizing both.
The vegan community already has up to its own toothpaste (enriched with vitamin B12, the only nutrient that a vegetarian diet lacks), and a political party of animalistic ideology, PACMA, which surpassed in the past general elections the 326,000 votes. They have also made it difficult with almost unpronounceable terms, such as Flexitarian, that is, the one that consumes mainly products of vegetal origin, eating only very occasionally meat or fish. According to the consultancy Lantern, 6.3% of the Spanish population was identified in 2017 with this option, especially for health reasons. Studies ditch: Vegans do not live more than those who follow a balanced diet omnivorous, but their food pattern is, by far, better than repeat steak Tuesday and Sunday (WHO recommends a maximum of 500 grams of red meat a week; in Spain Duplicate). In addition, according to another study published by the journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition, Those who base their diet alone in the vegetable are saved about about 750 dollars (675 euros) per year. More economic performance? Beyoncé and Jay-Z have encouraged their fans to become vegans in exchange for free concert tickets for life. And you don't have to give up the burgers: in Spain, one can already eat the replica of the laboratory made exclusively with vegetable molecules, of the brand Beyond Meat. Surprise: It's pretty rich.
You can enjoy this and other items in the new issue of May BUENAVIDA, now on sale in kiosks and kiosk and more.